Wednesday, April 4, 2018

What Are Epigenetics And Some Examples

By Jason Wagner

They can turn some genes off or on at some point. It is an external modification of DNA. Epigenetics, are traits that are above all the genes. It does not affect the sequence of the DNA, but it does how the DNA reads. It may live in the body of a person for as long as some cells are still alive. In others, it lasts in their life time from childhood to adulthood. It may also be passed over generations.

When DNA methylation is added to a methyl group or a chemical cap, it may cause some alteration to the genetic material. It alters the physical structure of the DNA but never the sequence. This can actually lead to the suppression of some genes. This means that those genes will not have the chance to be expressed. The structure will be the same, but the physical appearance will be different.

DNA is very long. It would not be able to fit into a cell was It not for a protein known as histone. DNA does not squash the protein, however. It lays out itself comfortably. If the DNA is too tight, it will be impossible to read because of the DNA reading cells. The modifications make the histone relax, and the material is easier to read.

The skin cells, muscle cells, and brain cells appear different in their structural formation and even functions. Yet somehow, they contain the same genetic material. These are because although they may contain the same genes, the way these genes are expressed is totally different. These are why our body parts appear to be different.

Epigenetics can be passed on to different generations, but this is not always the case. They may be in the egg cell, the sperm cell or in both. Once the egg and sperm fuse, they may undergo a process known as reprogramming. This is when all the previous genes are erased, and the fetus is formed. The fetus can then start from scratch forming its own epigenetics.

Some of the sperm and egg cells do not go through this reprogramming process. This means the fetus will reserve this epigenetic cells. Once the egg is fertilized, and reprogramming does not occur, the epigenetics are carried on to the next generation. This means the foods taken before conception play a big role in the future of your child. This is however not yet proved in human beings.

Epigenetics may actually have a role in the development of some cancers. Some of the genes kill the ability to control how big a cell grows. This means that the cell could overgrow at a very rapid rate. It may eventually stat to inhibit normal bodily functions in various body parts. It the end, it turns out to be a tumor.

There are cells whose job is to reconstruct damaged DNA. Some epigenetics may cause this to be impossible. This means that DNA will be damaged continually with no way of getting repaired. This is one of the ways of letting cancer out.

About the Author:

No comments:

Post a Comment